back to map

Current Name
Ancient Name
Anchialo, Ahelon
Medieval Name
Anchialos (Greek), Achelo (Slav), Tuthon, Tohun (Bulgarian)
History of the name

The name Anchialo is encountered for the first time in an inscription found in Istria and dated 2nd c. BC. Strabo mentioned that Anchialos is a small town of the Apollonians, i.e. apoikia of Apollonia Pontica (Sozopol). One possible etymology of the name is the Greek one, meaning settlement near the saltpans, though there are no written sources confirming the production of salt in Antiquity and in Early Middle Ages. The name Anchialos was preserved during the entire Antiquity and the Middle Ages in all Greek and Byzantine sources. The Slav population of the region called it Ahelo, while after being conquered by the Bulgarians in 812 it was renamed for a certain time to Tuthon or Tohun (a name of Protobulgarian origin), which is mentioned in some medieval written sources. 

Place :

Geopolitical Unit
Balkan peninsula, Western Black Sea coast
Administrative subdivision
Burgas Region, South-East Region
It is situated at some 20 km North of Burgas and 18 km South of Nessebar (medieval Messembria). The city occupies a peninsula jutting out some 3.5 km into the Black Sea near a salted lake estuary.
Foudation Date
There is no written evidence for the foundation of the Ancient town. According to the information given by Strabo (late 1st c. BC - early 1st c. AD) that Anchialos was an apoikia of Apollonia, various contemporary authors consider that it was founded sometime between 6th and 4th c. BC, the second limit being more likely. According an inscription found in Histria –an ancient city on the Black Sea coast, now in Romania) by the 2nd century BC Anchialos already existed and was fortified.
Current condition
The modern town of Pomorie is located on the North-East shore of Burgas bay on a homonymous narrow and rocky peninsula jutting into the Black sea. The town is surrounded from South, East and North-East by the sea and from North – of Pomorie lake. Only from West – North-West it is connected through a narrow isthmus, much frequently inundated by the sea to the fields of Pomorie, which are part of the vast Burgas plain. The town is a municipal center with population of c. 15 000. Along with traditional occupations of local people, such as viticulture, wine production, salt extraction and fishing, tourism and related activities define increasingly the city new economy. Pomorie is a very attractive seaside- and spa resort. In many local spa-centers is widely used the healing power of the local mud and water from several salt lakes and marshes surrounding the city.

In the locality Gerena nearby Pomorie there have been found data for the earliest settlement in the area, which was dated to the Early Iron Age (7th – 6th c. BC), as well as from the Classical Age (5th – 4th c. BC). During underwater archaeological surveys in the bay of Pomorie have been found stone anchors of 2nd millennium BC, as well as stone- and lead anchor stocks from a very big span of time: between 7th – 1st centuries BC. Such findings suggest that on the peninsula was thriving a Thracian settlement, although its traces are still not discovered. Some contemporary authors (B. Dimitrov) suggested that the Pre-Roman settlement has sunk through the centuries past and now it may be found under water in the Pomorie bay.
The town Anchialos was founded as apoikia of Apollonia Pontica (modern Sozopol) probably in 4th century BC. The ancient fortress of Anchialos is erected c. 2nd century BC and was located in the peninsula’s Western part in the location known now as Paleocastr (the Old fortress/town). Until the final Roman conquest in the beginning of 1stof century AD, Anchialos was center of a strategia (an ancient Thracian administrative unit) within the territory of the Odrisian kingdom. Since AD 45 the town and its adjacent area were included in the Roman province of Thracia. The town was awarded with autonomy during the reign of Emperor Trajan at the end of 1st . AD. The Roman town was situated at the beginning of the Anchialos field, outside the peninsula, also in Paleocastro. It was erected completely from scratch following the famous in Ancient times Hippodamian layot with new fortification walls. An idea about how these looked like one can have from the images on some autonomous bronze coins minted in the town during 2nd – 3rd c AD. During that period the town benefited of significant economic development. This was mainly due to the big harbor, the fertile surrounding lands and its location at a junction from where five important roads passed, staring from the Ancient one running along the Western Black Sea coast. Anchialos was marked on Tabula Peutingeriana (3rd c. AD). Probably the saltpans also have played some role in the town’s most flourishing period, although there are no written sources confirming salt production in Antiquity. Most likely during that period nearby the town was built the famous in Antiquity hot healing bath (thermae) maybe using some salt water too. The peaceful life in the region continued until the second half of 3rd c. AD. According to the 6th c. AD Gothic historian Jordanes, in AD 270 the Goths attacked and seized Anchialos, then plundered and destroyed entirely the town. It has been reconstructed in late 3rd c. AD by Emperor Diocletian who visited the city in AD 294. Following the imperial administrative reform, Anchialos was included in the Late Roman Province of Haemimontus, of Thracia Diocese and profited of a second heyday period. Its harbor grew accordingly. In 4th c. AD the famous historian Ammianus Marcellinus lists the town among the big cities in that province. During 5th – 6th c. AD it was mentioned as center of an Autocephalous Archbishop See, which continued throughout the Middle Ages. In the Synekdemos of Hierocles (6th c. AD), Anchialos is noted as the second in importance city in the Province of Haemimontus. It was taken by the Goths of Theodoric in AD 476. During the rebellion of foederates headed by Vitalian in AD 513, the town was occupied by his armies, as was Odessos, where the usurper remained until his murder in AD 518: Vitalian, whom the people rose for emperor, when he took the entire Thrace, Scythia and Moesia, with Bulgarians and numerous Huns took Anchialos and Odessopolis... Procopius of Caesarea (6th c. AD) wrote that during the reign of Emperor Justinian I the Great (527-565), Anchialos was with severely damaged walls, which forced the emperor to repair them and fortify the town again. During the great Avar and Slav incursion in AD 584, the town suffered again much as its fortification walls were partially destroyed and Bayan the Avar Khan remained in the camp established nearby. One of the reasons was that the Khan and his family enjoyed much and used for long time the healing hot baths in the area, which remained untouched.
By the end of 6th c. AD Anchialos became a strategically important camp where Byzantine troops regrouped in their wars against the Avars. In AD 585 there were located the Byzantine army under the command of the military leader Commentiolus and again in AD 591, then headed by Emperor Mauricius.
Following the establishment of the Bulgarian state in 681, Anchialos became again a very important strategic camp in the Byzantine war campaigns against the Bulgarians, as well as during the internecine strives for the Bulgarian throne during certain periods. During 7th – 10th c. some written sources refer the Archbishopric See of the town as belonging to Rhodopes Diocese (probably erroneously).
In 708 Emperor Justinian II Rhinotmetos concentrated his troops in the area of the town, but was defeated there by the Bulgarian Khan Tervel. On June 30, 763 near Anchialos took place the succeeding battle between Khan Telets and Constantine V Kopronimos. The emperor celebrated triumph but according to Patriarch Nicephorus, he was defeated and falsely presented himself as a victor in the battle. During the next years Anchialos was the main camp from where the Byzantine fleet and cavalry began their campaigns during the wars of Constantine V against Bulgaria.
In 783 Empress Irene and Constantine VI initiated a march towards the Haemus (Balkan) Mountains and reconstructed the fortress of Anchialos, which had suffered much during the military activities of previous years. Soon afterward Messembria and Anchialos were included in the newly established theme Macedonia with center Adrianopolis.
In the course of 812 campaign of the Bulgarian Khan Krum in Thrace Anchialos was conquered as its garrison left the town. Under the terms of the 815 peace treaty between Bulgaria and Byzantium the fortress was officially included in the territory of Bulgaria and received a new, Bulgarian name – Tuthon. Because Bulgarians were still pagans the Christian Church system of the town collapsed. Byzantium was able to reinstate its control on the town only by 864 together with that on Messembria. The Bishopric See was restored
During the campaigns of Bulgarian Tsar Simeon, after 894 Anchialos and the remaining fortresses on the south Black sea coast were included again within the territory of Bulgaria. Then, the Bishopric See was most probably included within the framework of the Bulgarian church hierarchy, which was established after the adoption of Christianity in the country in 865. Close to the town – near the river Aheloi on August 20, 917 the Byzantine army set by Empress Zoe suffered its major defeat from the troops of Tsar Simeon.
The town was included again in territory of Byzantium after 971 when Bulgaria was conquered by emperor John I Tzimiskes. Anchialos turned again in main strategic Byzantine camp on the Western Coast of Black Sea. Here were concentrated the imperial armies in its wars against Cuman invasions since the end of 11th and during 12th century. During that period the town position was enforced by the presence of an imperial domain in its vicinity, which was frequently visited by Byzantine emperors for rest and healing in the bath of Anchialos. From that period date information about a Bishop of Anchialos (an Archbishop in 12th century) subordinated to the Messembria Metropolitan. As noted in a Diocesan list of Constantinople Patriarchate, initially it was united with the bishop of Messembria, but the raise of the latter to Metropolitan made Anchialos see Archbishopric: So that Anchialos was united before with the Archbishopric of Nessebar, but when the latter was raised to Metropolitan, Anchialos was raised to an Archbishopric see. The archbishop of Anchialos took active part in the Synod of Constantinople together with metropolitans from other Dioceses as for instance in 1381: Having established that the letters are reliable and contain many true statements ... by Synod vote and after deliberations with the holy and venerable pontiffs of Kizik, Hugrowalahia, Nicaea, Amassia, Edirne, Nessebar, Herclea Pontica and with the archbishop of Anchialos... During 12th – 14th c. the Archbishops of Anchialos played important role in the spiritual, religious and social life of Bulgaria and Byzantium. Within the city walls and around it there were found many lead seals of important officials of both states.
After gaining independence and establishing of the Second Bulgarian Kingdom in 1185, Anchialos turned again into an important camp for concentration of Byzantine troops in their campaigns Northward. After the failure of the 1190 campaign of Emperor Isaac II Angelos against Bulgaria, the Bulgarian Tsar Asen I conquered the city for a short period and destroyed its fortifications. Soon afterward the emperor was able to regain Anchialos and had to reconstruct again its fortification walls. This event was noted by the Byzantine chronist Nicetas Choniates and in an anonymous Byzantine chronicle: Therefore they [Bulgarians] devastated Anchialos, took Varna and reached Triaditsa, once named Serdica.
Anchialos was annexed to Bulgaria during the Black Sea campaign of Tsar Kaloyan in 1201. Soon after that the emperor of the newly established Latin empire in Constantinople Heinrich was able to conquer and plunder the city during one of his campaigns against Bulgaria in 1206. Even after the reinstatement of the Byzantine Еmpire in 1261 Anchialos remained Bulgarian territory. During that period it was an important town where Bulgarian ecclesiastical books have been written or re-written and translated. Anchialos remained in Bulgarian hands at least until 1263, when according to the Byzantine historian Georgios Pachymeres it was conquered by the rebel and candidate for the Bulgarian crown despot Mitzo Asen, who at a later date handled it to Byzantium.
The town was gain annexed to Bulgaria during the campaigns of Tsar Theodor Svetoslav and the peace treaty he signed with Byzantium in 1307.
In 1330 Byzantium regained the city, but just a year later, after the victory near Rusokastro of the Bulgarian Tsar Ivan Alexander it was again returned to Bulgaria. In 1364 Byzantium made an unsuccessful attempt to recapture Anchialos.
On October 20, 1366 by the armies of Amadeus VI of Savoy during his campaign against the Bulgarians Black Sea harbors, Anchialos was conquered and charged to pay a contribution of nearly 3 000 hyperpyrons (gold coins). The knights ruled the city until March 1367 when it was transferred to the Byzantine Emperor John V Palaiologus.under the terms of a peace treaty
In 1369 Anchialos and Messembria were included in the newly established Dobroudja Despotate. Most likely the town was conquered by the Ottomans in the end of 1369, but it was later returned in 1403to the Byzantines under the terms of a treaty with the Emir Süleyman Çelebi. one of the heirs of Sultan Bayezid I:
In 1421 the city is included in the Despotate of the autonomous Bulgarian Despot Constantine Dragash. the Ottomans conquered finally Anchialos and the remaining under Byzantine or other rule Black sea fortresses South of Balkan Mountains in the spring of 1453, shortly before the conquest of Constantinople The event was described by the Italian humanist Lauro Kvirini: ... This storm resulted to the perdition of Byzantium ... The Turk subdued every and all beautiful towns on the Black sea coast ... Sozopol, Anchialos, Messembria... On the next year, following the experience with Messembria, Sultan Mehmet II resettled the population from Anchialos to Constantinople and new settlers arrived there.
Since 15th century the town turned to be the main sea-salt extracting center within the Ottoman Empire on the Balkans and due to its high quality the product was exported not only to the capital but also to some distant lands. Only for the needs of Sultan palace, the town delivered 75 000 kg salt per year. The Sultan granted to city population, and especially the salt producers, special tax benefits. Probably because of the same reason it was declared a sultan domain (has). Being the largest local salt producer, and probably because of its key location on Thracian Black Sea coast Anchialos/Achelo became center of an Ottoman administrative unit, which covered  a significant area. In addition to fishing and salt extraction in the region were developed viticulture and wine producing, horticulture, stockbreeding, and the town was center of a very big domestic animals- and agricultural market and seat of a customs office. Shipbuilding, charcoal production and many other crafts had their impact too. Meanwhile Anchialos became the center of a large Metropolitan Diocese and during the 16th – 17th centuries two of the local Metropolitans were elected Patriarchs of Constantinople (Istanbul). In that period, over fifty names of churches of that period have been mentioned for one or another reason in the town. One should take into account that before and after the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottomans, and during the second half of 15th century, the town was a permanent refuge place for many emigrants, either by their will or force. Numerous Byzantine high officials and members of aristocratic families from the Byzantine capital settled there. However starting with 17th century onward the town steadily declined, its population, especially the Christian one shrinked and Anchialos turned into an insignificant port and rather a little fishermen settlement. During that period many Bulgarians from the vicinity settled in the town and established a new neighborhood.
During the 18th – 19th centuries the local people lost partially their main businesses: the salt extraction and wine production. Meanwhile the commercial activity became also very limited and consisted mostly of agricultural products’ trade. The port was almost of no use with exceptions of fishing and export of traditional local goods as salt, timber, wood grain and other agricultural products.


The Anchialos fortress of Roman period was situated in the vicinity Paleocastro, in the peninsula Western part, from the line starting with modern monastery St. George in present Pomorie. It had a trapezoidal form with strong stone walls recorded on coins minted in the ancient town in 3rd c. AD. The fortress was preserved most likely there until 12th century, though until present time no remnants of it have been discovered.
During the Second Bulgarian Kingdom the town has been transferred toward the peninsula end and a new fortress was erected on that site. Unfortunately, during the following centuries it was much ruined by human- and sea activities alike. Only a very small section of that wall is still visible on the South shore of peninsula, near the port. In fact, only the core of the structure is preserved, because its lining being of smooth worked large stones has been removed a long time age in the past centuries. In Paleocastro neighborhood excavation conducted in 1970ies and in the past several years revealed part of the Roman Anchialos: a few wide, paved by large stone slabs streets with canalization, surrounded by large private buildings and shops, often decorated by marble. There were discovered a number of ancient artifacts, now on display at the Town Museum of History. Unfortunately due to the increased through the past centuries level of underground waters, only in years with very dry summer it is possible to conduct excavation on the site and it is impossible to dig deeper to the level of the Pre-Roman periods of the ancient town. The Medieval Anchialos is covered nowadays by big houses of the modern town of Pomorie, built mostly in 20th century, which does not allow starting archaeological investigation of the site.


Today: Like its Ancient- and Medieval counterparts, the present Pomorie harbor is situated in the peninsula South bay, well protected from North winds. It is has a long pier and it is is well equipped with facilities to welcome middle and some bigger ships and yachts. There are wharfs for building small ships, boats and yachts located there too. During the summer season the harbor is visited by a number of boats, tourist ships and private yachts.
The Ancient port of Anchialos was located also in the South bay of the peninsula and was well protected from North – and West winds. Underwater archaeological expeditions in the Pomorie bay have collected several ancient stone anchors, 4th century BC amphorae from the Island of Thasos and other Hellenistic and Roman & Late Antique pottery fragments.  An underwater wave breaker and quay walls have been traced too. Until the end of 7th century AD in lower water the harbor was protected from big waves by the underwater reef just in front of contemporary waterbreaker on east. Its average depth is of 4–5 m, reaching at some places as little as 1.5 m. It was a natural waterbreaker used by the antique Anchialos population. A number of Ancient and Medieval artifacts have been discovered and collected and entered the museum collection too. In the Town museum some of the most important finds from underwater research in the ancient harbor: one stone and one lead anchor stock with box stocks, anchor, one anchor stock with bolt aperture and limiting fret and a constraint are exhibited.
The Anchialos harbor had good infrastructure as seen on locally minted Roman coins, which illustrated the port entrance. During the Roman and Late Antique periods (1st-early7th c. AD, Anchialos’ port was the biggest import and export point for army supplies of food, weapons and other needed goods in the Province of Thrace. During the rebellion of Vitalian in AD 515 in the ports of Odessos, Anchialos and Sozopol have moored some 200 of his ships, as stated in ancient written sources.
Following the establishment of the Bulgarian state in 681 the port of Anchialos accommodated the Byzantine Empire ships during the concentration of troops on land for campaigns directed against Bulgaria through East Balkan Mountains. In 708 the Byzantine fleet led by Justinian II (685-695; 705-711) moored in Anchialos’ port.
Later on, this harbor continued to be the most important camp for concentration of Byzantine troops throughout the campaigns against Bulgaria during the reign of Еmperor Constantine V Kopronimos. The harbor, which was certainly big and convenient accommodated in the bay some 2 600 helandias. Theophanes the Confessor indicates that on June 16 [763] the Emperor [Constantine V] came against Thrace, sending through the Black sea a fleet of 800 helandias, each one carrying 12 horses... And the Emperor, when he came, placed his camp in the field of Anchialos...
On June 21 of 4 indiction [766] the Emperor rose against the Bulgarians and sent to Anchialos 2600 helandias, equipped from the themes around the empire. But when those threw their anchors there was a very strong north wind and it was almost able to destroy all helandias and many soldiers drown... Then on July 17 he entered the capital miserably.
The same information is provided by Patriarch Nicephorus and George the Monk, John Zonaras and many other Byzantine chronists. They all note for the year 765: He armed a fleet reaching to some two thousand and six hundred ships, boarded them with sailors and soldiers then sent them to come around the cities of Messembria and Anchialos and to come closer to Bulgarians...
Anchialos port was mentioned also in the Geography of Guido of 1119. In 1148 the port of Anchialos accommodated some 500 triremes and 1000 cargo ships for a subsequent campaign against the Cumans in Northern part of Bulgaria.
In the mid-12th century al-Idrisi described in his Geography the ports and the distances between them on the road from Constantinople to the mouth of Danube. Anchialos was mentioned in the list too: From Constantia ( now Constanţa in Romania) to the town of Mitraha (?) on the North shore of Black Sea... from Basiliku (now Tsarevo, in Bulgaria) to the town of Suzubuly (Sozopol) – 25 miles; from Suzubuly to Ahylu (Anchialos) – 25 miles. In between the two cities there is a bay with 13 miles width, while its length on land is 20 miles. From the city of Ahylu to Aymine(Emona/ Emine) there are 25 miles.
The town was mentioned several times also in Italian portolani dated 14th – 15th centuries as a good harbor but was described under various names derived from the original one: Hyllo, Xylo and Ahyllo, as well as the nearby location of saltpans: From Sozopoli to Miskuria [Messembria] there are 18 miles. Miskuria is a populated city and has a spring on the beach Westward, if you turn the ship bow toward the city. From Miscuria to Hyllo [Anchialos] there is 14 miles. Hyllo is a good harbor and has saltpans.
From Messimvry to Achyllo there are 14 miles. Ahyllo is a city with good harbor and has saltpans.
From Miscuria [Messembria] to Xyllo [Anchialos] there are 14 miles. Xyllo is a city with good harbor and has saltpans.
A later portolan from 15th century mentions: The port of Ahyllo is better for mooring ships than the one in Messembria. And when you reach the cape in Ahyllo, the one which from east looks like fence ... throw your anchor at a distance of three cables from the land, where you shall find a bottom of 4 to 5 feet.
Throughout 13th – 14th centuries Anchialos was not only an intermediate port for Italian merchants visiting the territories close to Danube mouth and Crimea, but served as well to load important quantities of wheat, other agricultural goods and salt. The port served for export of some quantities of Zagora wheat, which was of very high quality and much demanded. This fact and the role of Anchialos for grain export were described in the Commercial Handbook written by Francesco Pegolotti (1310-1347): Kaffa wheat is the best wheat ... Azylo [Anchialos] wheat is priced at the same level with the one from Kaffa ...
Grain trade through Anchialos, ports was mentioned in several Venetian and Genoese documents dated to the first half of 14th century. Venetians were very important merchants welcomed in the Anchialos trade. Genoa exported also very large quantities of grain from the same port. Just in 1358 this Italian city exported 58 tons from that port.
The harbor of Anchialos was mentioned again in 1453 when on a Venetian ship was loaded 1140 modii salt produced in the town. This is the last document concerning the trade of Italian City-republics with Anchialos.
The port of Anchialos was marked on several sea-fare charts dated 14th – 16th c. It can be found for the first time on Petrus Visconte map of 1311 where it was called Laxalo. On his sea-fare chart dated 1318 it was noted as Axelo. On the map of Guillermo Solleri (1385) the name appeared as Lassilo and on the one of Francesco Beccaro (1403) as Lassila. Similar or variations of those names provided numerous 15th century maps such as the ones of Missia de Valdes, Gabriel de Valseka, Niccolo Fiorin, Grazioso Benincasa and many similar ones. During the period of 15th – 17th centuries the port was very busy and was initial point for large amount of goods transferred to the capital Istanbul and other locations in the Ottoman empire. From the port were exported mainly salt, timber, wood and charcoal, fruits and vegetables and several other agricultural products. Since the second half of the 17th century and until the 19th century the town was depopulated due to unknown and suffered a large in size decline. Then the Anchialos harbor remained unused and there was no lighthouse built by the Ottoman authorities. Today the port is used only for fishing and visited only by little tourist- and trade ships exporting mainly salt and timber. Yachts of little and medium size are also mooring there.


The Ancient fortress of Anchialos is still not discovered. It is quite likely that because of the good stone blocks it was built, it has been demolished during the Middle Ages and the Ottoman period. Only some small sections of the Medieval fortress are preserved at the tip of the cape, at a little distance North of present port, where the medieval one was located too. The wall is built of local rubble stone bonded with white mortar and the missing today lining was of smoothed stones as it is visible from separate stones of the wall, re-used in some contemporary houses and fences. Nowadays the preserved height of the fortification is up to 2 m, though very much in ruins. It is interesting that the wall is now located on the very sea coast, although it seems that during Antiquity and Middle Ages in cases of lower sea level it seems that in front there were some lands free of use. Nevertheless it is impossible to reconstruct the entire layout of the Medieval fortification because today the entire area is densely built over during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Medieval Sites

The medieval fortification wall is preserved only near the port in a small section – near the so-called Yavorov rocks. The wall is seen only from sea or from immediate vicinity right on the sea shore. The Town museum is situated in an imposing building of early 20th century and it presents on two floors the history of the town and its environment starting with pre-history (5th millennium BC) until the beginning of 20th century. Archaeology has gained the central place of the general exposition. The artifacts on show consist of: Prehistoric ceramic, pottery, stone, and flint products, a few fragments from Ancient Greek amphorae, black glazed ceramics and lamps; many Roman and Late Antique pottery- and glass vessels, dress decorations made of  bronze, some marble architectural units, lead seals, etc. Less in number is medieval pottery and everyday life objects made of clay, bone, bronze, ornaments, and other similar artifacts of Medieval period: 11th – 15th centuries. Ottoman period is embodied with texts and mostly ceramic artifacts of 15th – 19th c.). The history of Anchialos from Bulgaria Liberation in 1878 to the Second World Ward is illustrated with local and imported everyday life objects. The museum offers to the public also a small gallery mainly with 20th century art.
Within the city there are a few churches built in 19th – 20th centuries and a small, but well maintained monastery:  St. George, located in buildings of 19th – 20th centuries. Some collected data suggested that it was founded as early as 17th century, but it is quite possible that onsite there was located an earlier Christian cloister maybe dating from the Middle Ages (?). Within the monastery territory there is a holy water source (hagiazmon), embedded in a local chapel. The site is visited by many believers and tourists from the country and abroad.
An interesting and attractive site in Pomorie is the Salt extraction museum, the only one on the Balkan Peninsula, which is located near salt extracting region at the Salty lake. Within a specially constructed building, on a small projecting inside the lake cape the salt extraction history in Pomorie is presented and illustrated  by authentic and copied documents papers concerning that topics, maps, old engravings and pictures dated from the 15th century (the period when are dated the first available written sources) onward. In the museum visitors may observe the specific engineering of a salt extracting unit dated early 19th – early 20th centuries and a replica, which shows how it was used as in summertime. Within the museum building may be observed also how salt is extracted at present days.

Textual Sources

Strab. 7.319
Menn. Perg. Peripl. 156.
Arr. Peripl. P. Eux. 24 (35M)
Anon. Pripl P Eux. 85
География” на Гвидо. - ЛИБИ, ІІІ, 131.
Б. Недков. България и съседните й земи през ХІІ в. според Географията на Ал Идриси. София, 1960, 69, 81, 99.
Хроника” на Никита Хониат. – ИБИ, ХХV, 43.
„Обзорна хроника” на Теодор Скутариот. – ИБИ, ХV, 252.
Кратка византийска хроника” (В. Гюзелев. Очерци върху историята на българския Североизток и Черноморието (края на ХІІ – началото на ХV век). София, 1995, с. 13
Италиански портулан (препис от ХV в. по оригинал от началото на ХІV в.). – П. Коледаров. Мореплавателни карти, наръчници и други свидетелства за международното значение на Втората българска държава. – Сб. България в света от древността до наши дни. София, 1979, 293–294.
Венециански портулан. – Б. Димитров. Българските пристанища в ХІІІ–ХІV в. според два портулана. – Археология, ХХІ, 1, 1979, 23.
Анонимен италиански портулан (съставен вероятно през ХІV в., но известен по препис от ХV в.) –  Б. Димитров. България в средновековната морска картография ХVІ–ХVІІ в. София, 1984,  37.
В. Гюзелев. Средновековна България в светлината на нови извори. София, 1981.
Наръчник за писане на песма на Константинополската патриаршия” (съставен между 1385 и 1388 г.). – В. Гюзелев. Извори за средновековната история на България (VІІ–ХV в.). В австрийските ръкописни сбирки. София, 1994, 215.
В. Гюзелев. Венециански документи за историята на България и българите от ХІІ–ХV в. – Архивите говорят, 18, 2001.
П. Петров, В. Гюзелев. Христоматия по история на България, 1. София,1978, 224.
Димитров, Б. България в средновековната морска картография (ХІV–ХVІІ век). София, МCMLXXXIV, с. 21, № № 3–6,  9–11, 13–21, 25, 26, 28, 30, 34, 35 до 70
Атлас. Българските земи в европейската картографска традиция (ІІІ–ХІХ век). София, 2008, № ІІ, 2 - 26.


В. Гюзелев. Анхиало. – В: Български средновековни градове и крепости. Варна, 1981, 427.
Б. Димитров. България в средновековната морска картография ХІV – ХVІІ век. София, 1984, 20.
Т. Стоянов. Археологически данни за за неизвестно тракийско селище край Анхиало.-Археология, ХХХV, 3, 1993, 17-25.
В. Гюзелев. Очерци върху историята на българския
Североизток и Черноморието (края на ХІІ – началото на ХV в., София, 1995, 116–118.
В. Гюзелев. Извори за средновековната история на България (VІІ–ХV в.). В австрийските ръкописни сбирки. София, 1994,  206.
Д. Гонис. Търново и крайбрежните митрополии и архиепископии (Варна, Месемвия, Созопол и Анхиало) през ХІV в. – ТКШ, 5, 1994, 466, бел. 4.
М. Лазаров, В. Гюзелев, Е. Грозданова, В. Тонев. История на Поморие. Поморие, 2000, 5-122.
М. Гюзелев. Западният Понт между Емине и Босфора през първото хилядолетие пр. Хр. Бургас, 2009, 225-229.


Tourist Information:     

Visual Material
Writer / Date
Аlexander Minchev, February – May 2013
This website has been produced with the assistance of the European Union. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of European Centre for Byzantine and Post-Byzantine monuments and can in no way reflect the views of the European Union